With the advent of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Midcontinent, USA, fields once thought to be exhausted are now experiencing renewed exploitation. However, traditional Midcontinent seismic analysis techniques no longer provide satisfactory reservoir characterization for these unconventional plays; new seismic analysis methods are needed to properly characterize these radically innovative play concepts. Time processing and filtering is applied to a raw 3D seismic data set from Osage County, Oklahoma, paying careful attention to velocity analysis, residual statics, and coherent noise filtering. The use of a robust prestack structure-oriented filter and spectral whitening greatly enhances the results. After prestack time migrating the data using a Kirchhoff algorithm, new velocities are picked. A final normal moveout correction is applied using the new velocities, followed by a final prestack structure-oriented filter and spectral whitening. Simultaneous prestack inversion uses the reprocessed and time-migrated seismic data as input, along with a well from within the bounds of the survey. With offsets out to 3048 m and a target depth of approximately 880 m, we can invert for density in addition to P- and S-impedance. Prestack inversion attributes are sensitive to lithology and porosity while surface seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature are sensitive to lateral changes in waveform and structure. We use these attributes in conjunction with interpreted horizontal image logs to identify zones of high porosity and high fracture density.
- Received March 1, 2013.
- Accepted April 25, 2013.